FIGURE 1: Schematic illustration of mitochondria-to-nucleus signaling in yeast.

Mitochondrial dysfunction initiate change in concentrations of several factors in the cytoplasm (ATP, amino acids, ROS, Fe-S clusters, unfolded proteins and others), these concentrations also depend on environmental and non-mitochondrial factors. Then factors are detected by the cytosolic sensors (RTG1/RTG3, Hap 1-5, Yap1 and others) which transmit the signals to the nucleus leading to compensatory transcriptional response. Question mark indicates that the direct signaling routes are still not known.

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