FIGURE 3: TC-1 protects against pro-apoptotic genes.

(A) Yeast cells harbouring control plasmid (Vector) or plasmids expressing different pro-apoptotic peptides including NUC1, AIF, YCA1 or YBH3 were co-transformed with either empty plasmid (Vector) or a plasmid expressing TC-1 or 14-3-3. The spot growth assay was used to assess the growth of the transformants on YNB media with galactose alone (Control) or with a sublethal concentration of copper sulfate (CuSO4). The cells were allowed to grow at 30°C for 3 days and photographs of the plates are shown.

(B) Freshly growing cultures of yeast transformants with two empty vectors (Control), one empty vector and a YCA1 expressing plasmid (YCA1) or the YCA1 and the TC-1 expressing plasmids (YCA1+TC-1) were challenged without (-) or with (+) sublethal Yca1p activating levels of copper (CuSO4). Viability was determined by microscopical examination of at least 300 cells. The data is shown as the percentage of cells that survive and represents the median ± SEM of at least n = 3 independent experiments. * indicates that the viability of cells expressing YCA1 alone was significantly lower than the viability of control cells while ** indicates that the viability of cells expressing YCA1+TC-1 was significantly higher than the viability of cells expressing YCA1 alone with P-values < 0.05.

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