FIGURE 4: TC-1 protects in the absence of pro-apoptotic genes.

(A) The growth of wild type yeast as well as mutants lacking YCA1 or YBH3 transformed with empty plasmid (Vector) or the TC-1 or 14-3-3 expressing plasmids was examined using a spot assay on YNB media with galactose alone or with the indicated concentrations of copper sulfate. The plates were allowed to grow at 30°C for 3 days and photographs of the plates are shown.

(B) Galactose growing cultures of wild type yeast as well as mutants lacking YCA1 transformed with empty plasmid (Vector) or the TC-1 expressing plasmid were grown for 18 hours without (-) or with (+) 1.4 mM copper sulfate (CuSO4). Aliquots of the cells were stained with trypan blue and viability was determined by microscopical examination. Viability was determined by microscopical examination of at least 300 cells. The data is shown as the percentage of cells that survive and represents the median ± SEM of at least n = 3 independent experiments. * indicates that the viability of cells TC-1 was significantly higher than the viability of control cells (P-values < 0.05).

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