Back to article: A chemical genetic screen reveals a role for proteostasis in capsule and biofilm formation by Cryptococcus neoformans

FIGURE 7: Combination of lithium with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib blocks capsule production. (A) DIC microscopy images of the indicated C. neoformans strains grown in CIM (control) or CIM supplemented with the indicated concentrations of LiCl and/or bortezomib for 48 h and stained with India ink to visualize capsule. Wt, H99S wild type; BTZ, bortezomib. Scale bar, 5 µm. (B) Quantification of cell diameter and capsule thickness for cells from panel A. The experiment was performed twice, and at least 25 cells were analyzed per strain and condition. Small grey squares and blue circles indicate individual data points from both experiments, and the black bar indicates the median ± interquartile range. The dotted black lines indicate the median capsule sizes of the Wt or pkr1D mutant grown under control conditions. **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001, and ****P < 0.0001 by t-test. (C) Relative capsule thickness data from panel B. Results were plotted relative to the untreated controls. Note that capsule formation by the pkr1D mutant is less affected by BTZ, but more strongly reduced by LiCl compared to the Wt.

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