Back to article: Gammaretroviruses tether to mitotic chromatin by directly binding nucleosomal histone proteins

FIGURE 2: A model for gammaretroviral p12 function in the early stages of infection. In the mature virion, the NTD of p12 directly binds to and stabilises the hexameric CA lattice that surrounds the viral core. The gammaretroviral PIC, minimally carrying p12, CA, IN and the viral cDNA must wait until mitosis, when the nuclear envelope disassembles, to gain access to host chromatin. The PIC is then tethered to nucleosomes by CA-bound, phosphorylated p12. Exit from mitosis triggers the de-phosphorylation of p12 and the dissociation of p12 and CA from chromatin. This then reveals the intasome, consisting of viral cDNA and IN. IN can then bind to chromatin-associated BET proteins and direct the viral cDNA to gene promoter regions where it then catalyses integration of the viral cDNA into host chromatin to form a provirus.

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