Back to article: Pathways of host cell exit by intracellular pathogens

FIGURE 1: The three strategies of host cell exit. (1) Induction of programmed cell death, including the non-lytic apoptosis and the lytic necroptosis and pyroptosis pathways; (2) Active host cell destruction, comprising breaching of host cell membranes such as the vacuolar and/or the host cell plasma membrane; (3) Induced membrane-dependent exit without host cell destruction, e.g. by actin tail (yellow line)-mediated protrusions, extrusions, budding, exocytosis, expulsion or ejection via an ejectosome (yellow box). Pathogens for which distinct pathways were demonstrated are indicated. AB, apoptotic body; FC, fragmented chromatin; N, nucleus; P, pathogen; V, vacuole.

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