Table of contents

Volume 10, Issue 4, pp. 78 - 102, April 2023

Issue cover
Cover: Colorized scanning electron micrograph of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria (image by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), USA; image modified by MIC). The cover is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license. Enlarge issue cover

Research Articles

A modular cloning (MoClo) toolkit for reliable intracellular protein targeting in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Pavel Simakin, Christian Koch and Johannes M. Herrmann

page 78-87 | 10.15698/mic2023.04.794 | Full text | PDF | Abstract

Modular Cloning (MoClo) allows the combinatorial assembly of plasmids from standardized genetic parts without the need of error-prone PCR reactions. It is a very powerful strategy which enables highly flexible expression patterns without the need of repetitive cloning procedures. In this study, we describe an advanced MoClo toolkit that is designed for the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and optimized for the targeting of proteins of interest to specific cellular compartments. Comparing different targeting sequences, we developed signals to direct proteins with high specificity to the different mitochondrial subcompartments, such as the matrix and the intermembrane space (IMS). Furthermore, we optimized the subcellular targeting by controlling expression levels using a collection of different promoter cassettes; the MoClo strategy allows it to generate arrays of expression plasmids in parallel to optimize gene expression levels and reliable targeting for each given protein and cellular compartment. Thus, the Mo-Clo strategy enables the generation of protein-expressing yeast plasmids that accurately target proteins of interest to various cellular compartments.

Acetate modulates the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus gasseri against the pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans and Candida glabrata

Nuno A. Pedro, Gabriela Fontebasso, Sandra N. Pinto, Marta Alves and Nuno P. Mira

page 88-102 | 10.15698/mic2023.04.795 | Full text | PDF | Abstract

The exploration of the interference prompted by commensal bacteria over fungal pathogens is an interesting alternative to develop new therapies. In this work we scrutinized how the presence of the poorly studied vaginal species Lactobacillus gasseri affects relevant pathophysiological traits of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata. L. gasseri was found to form mixed biofilms with C. albicans and C. glabrata resulting in pronounced death of the yeast cells, while bacterial viability was not affected. Reduced viability of the two yeasts was also observed upon co-cultivation with L. gasseri under planktonic conditions. Either in planktonic cultures or in biofilms, the anti-Candida effect of L. gasseri was augmented by acetate in a concentration-dependent manner. During planktonic co-cultivation the two Candida species counteracted the acidification prompted by L. gasseri thus impacting the balance between dissociated and undissociated organic acids. This feature couldn’t be phenocopied in single-cultures of L. gasseri resulting in a broth enriched in acetic acid, while in the co-culture the non-toxic acetate prevailed. Altogether the results herein described advance the design of new anti-Candida therapies based on probiotics, in particular, those based on vaginal lactobacilli species, helping to reduce the significant burden that infections caused by Candida have today in human health.

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