Table of contents

Volume 9, Issue 12, pp. 190 - 206, December 2022

Issue cover
Cover: Mesenteric adipose tissue (a part of the visceral adipose tissue) four days after infection with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, in which fat-associated lymphoid clusters can be observed (image by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), USA; image modified by MIC). The cover is published under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license. Enlarge issue cover


Effects of the intestinal microbiota on prostate cancer treatment by androgen deprivation therapy

Safae Terrisse, Laurence Zitvogel and Guido Kroemer

page 190-194 | 10.15698/mic2022.12.787 | Full text | PDF | Abstract

Prostate cancer (PC) can be kept in check by androgen deprivation therapy (ADT, usually with the androgen synthesis inhibitor abiraterone acetate or the androgen receptor antagonist such as enzalutamide) until the tumor evolves to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The transition of hormone-sensitive PC (HSPC) to CPRC has been explained by cancer cell-intrinsic resistance mechanisms. Recent data indicate that this transition is also marked by cancer cell-extrinsic mechanisms such as the failure of ADT-induced PC immunosurveillance, which depends on the presence of immunostimulatory bacteria in the gut. Moreover, intestinal bacteria that degrade drugs used for ADT, as well as bacteria that produce androgens, can interfere with the efficacy of ADT. Thus, specific bacteria in the gut serve as a source of testosterone, which accelerates prostate cancer progression, and men with CRPC exhibit an increased abundance of such bacteria with androgenic functions. In conclusion, the response of PC to ADT is profoundly influenced by the composition of the microbiota with its immunostimulatory, immunosuppressive and directly ADT-subversive elements.

Research Articles

DadY (PA5303) is required for fitness of Pseudomonas aeruginosa when growth is dependent on alanine catabolism

Ronnie L. Fulton and Diana M. Downs

page 195-206 | 10.15698/mic2022.12.788 | Full text | PDF | Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa inhabits diverse environmental niches that can have varying nutrient composition. The ubiquity of this organism is facilitated by a metabolic strategy that preferentially utilizes low-energy, non-fermentable organic acids, such as amino acids, rather than the high-energy sugars preferred by many other microbes. The amino acid alanine is among the preferred substrates of P. aeruginosa. The dad locus encodes the constituents of the alanine catabolic pathway of P. aeruginosa. Physiological roles for DadR (AsnC-type transcriptional activator), DadX (alanine racemase), and DadA (D-amino acid dehydrogenase) have been defined in this pathway. An additional protein, PA5303, is encoded in the dad locus in P. aeruginosa. PA5303 is a member of the ubiquitous Rid protein superfamily and is designated DadY based on the data presented herein. Despite its conservation in numerous Pseudomonas species and membership in the Rid superfamily, no physiological function has been assigned to DadY. In the present study, we demonstrate that DadA releases imino-alanine that can be deaminated by DadY in vitro. While DadY was not required for alanine catabolism in monoculture, dadY mutants had a dramatic fitness defect in competition with wild-type P. aeruginosa when alanine served as the sole carbon or nitrogen source. The data presented herein support a model in which DadY facilitates flux through the alanine catabolic pathway by removing the imine intermediate generated by DadA. Functional characterization of DadY contributes to our understanding of the role of the broadly conserved Rid family members.

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