Advance online publication:

This section includes articles accepted for publication in Microbial Cell, which have not been released in a regular issue, yet. Please note that the PDF versions of advance publication articles are generally paginated starting with page 1. This does not correspond to the final pagination upon release of the issue it will appear in.


Depletion of SNAP-23 and Syntaxin 4 alters lipid droplet homeostasis during Chlamydia infection

Tiago Monteiro-Brás, Jordan Wesolowski and Fabienne Paumet

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Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen that replicates inside a parasitic vacuole called the inclusion. The nascent inclusion is derived from the host plasma membrane and serves as a platform from which Chlamydia controls interactions with the host microenvironment. To survive inside the host cell, Chlamydia scavenges for nutrients and lipids by recruiting and/or fusing with various cellular compartments. The mechanisms by which these events occur are poorly understood but require host proteins such as the SNARE proteins (SNAP (Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein) Receptor). Here, we show that SNAP-23 and Syntaxin 4, two plasma membrane SNAREs, are recruited to the inclusion and play an important role in Chlamydia development. Knocking down SNAP-23 and Syntaxin 4 by CRISPR-Cas9 reduces the amount of infectious progeny. We then demonstrate that the loss of both of these SNARE proteins results in the dysregulation of Chlamydia-induced lipid droplets, indicating that both SNAP-23 and Syntaxin 4 play a critical role in lipid droplet homeostasis during Chlamydia infection. Ultimately, our data highlights the importance of lipid droplets and their regulation in Chlamydia development.

PDF | Published online: 03/12/2019 | In press

The role of Lactobacillus species in the control of Candida via biotrophic interactions

Isabella Zangl, Ildiko-Julia Pap, Christoph Aspöck and Christoph Schüller

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Microbial communities have an important role in health and disease. Candida spp. are ubiquitous commensals and sometimes opportunistic fungal pathogens of humans, colonizing mucosal surfaces of the genital, urinary, respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts and the oral cavity. They mainly cause local mucosal infections in immune competent individuals. However, in the case of an ineffective immune defense, Candida infections may become a serious threat. Lactobacillus spp. are part of the human microbiome and are natural competitors of Candida in the vaginal environment. Lactic acid, low pH and other secreted metabolites are environmental signals sensed by fungal species present in the microbiome. This review briefly discusses the ternary interaction between host, Lactobacillus species and Candida with regard to fungal infections and the potential antifungal and fungistatic effect of Lactobacillus species. Our understanding of these interactions is incomplete due to the variability of the involved species and isolates and the complexity of the human host.

PDF | Published online: 25/11/2019 | In press

Yeast can express and assemble bacterial secretins in the mitochondrial outer membrane

Janani Natarajan, Anasuya Moitra, Sussanne Zabel, Nidhi Singh, Samuel Wagner and Doron Rapaport

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Secretins form large multimeric pores in the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria. These pores are part of type II and III secretion systems (T2SS and T3SS, respectively) and are crucial for pathogenicity. Recent structural studies indicate that secretins form a structure rich in β-strands. However, little is known about the mechanism by which secretins assemble into the OM. Based on the conservation of the biogenesis of β-barrel proteins in bacteria and mitochondria, we used yeast cells as a model system to study the assembly process of secretins. To that end, we analyzed the biogenesis of PulD (T2SS), SsaC (T3SS) and InvG (T3SS) in wild type cells or in cells mutated for known mitochondrial import and assembly factors. Our results suggest that secretins can be expressed in yeast cells, where they are enriched in the mitochondrial fraction. Interestingly, deletion of mitochondrial import receptors like Tom20 and Tom70 reduces the mitochondrial association of PulD but does not affect that of InvG. SsaC shows another dependency pattern and its membrane assembly is enhanced by the absence of Tom70 and compromised in cells lacking Tom20 or the topogenesis of outer membrane β-barrel proteins (TOB) complex component, Mas37. Collectively, these findings suggest that various secretins can follow different pathways to assemble into the bacterial OM.

PDF | Published online: 19/11/2019 | In press

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