Advance online publication:

This section includes articles accepted for publication in Microbial Cell, which have not been released in a regular issue, yet. Please note that the PDF versions of advance publication articles are generally paginated starting with page 1. This does not correspond to the final pagination upon release of the issue it will appear in.

 

Structural insights into the architecture and assembly of eukaryotic flagella

Narcis-Adrian Petriman and Esben Lorentzen

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Cilia and flagella are slender projections found on most eukaryotic cells including unicellular organisms such as Chlamydomonas, Trypanosoma and Tetrahymena, where they serve motility and signaling functions. The cilium is a large molecular machine consisting of hundreds of different proteins that are trafficked into the organelle to organize a repetitive microtubule-based axoneme. Several recent studies took advantage of improved cryo-EM methodology to unravel the high-resolution structures of ciliary complexes. These include the recently reported purification and structure determination of axonemal doublet microtubules from the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which allows for the modeling of more than 30 associated protein factors to provide deep molecular insight into the architecture and repetitive nature of doublet microtubules. In addition, we will review several recent contributions that dissect the structure and function of ciliary trafficking complexes that ferry structural and signaling components between the cell body and the cilium organelle.

PDF | Published online: 21/09/2020 | In press

Erythrocyte phospho-signalling is dynamically altered during infection with Plasmodium falciparum

Jack D. Adderley and Christian Doerig

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It is well established that intracellular pathogens mobilise signalling pathways to manipulate gene expression of their host cell to promote their own survival. Surprisingly, there is evidence that specific host signalling molecules are likewise activated in a-nucleated erythrocytes in response to infection with malaria parasites. In this paper (Adderley et al., Nature Communications 2020), we report the system-wide assessment of host erythrocyte signalling during the course of infection with Plasmodium falciparum. This was achieved through the use of antibody microarrays containing >800 antibodies directed against human signalling proteins, which enabled us to interrogate the status of host erythrocyte signalling pathways at the ring, trophozoite and schizont stages of parasite development. This not only confirmed the pre-existing fragmentary data on the activation of a host erythrocyte PAK-MEK pathway, but also identified dynamic changes to many additional signalling elements, with trophozoite-infected erythrocytes displaying the largest mobilisation of host cell signalling. This study generated a comprehensive dataset on the modulation of host erythrocyte signalling during infection with P. falciparum, and provides the proof of principle that human protein kinases activated by Plasmodium infection represent attractive targets for antimalarial intervention.

PDF | Published online: 16/09/2020 | In press

Novobiocin inhibits membrane synthesis and vacuole formation of Enterococcus faecalis protoplasts

Rintaro Tsuchikado, Satoshi Kami, Sawako Takahashi and Hiromi Nishida

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We demonstrate that plasma membrane biosynthesis and vacuole formation require DNA replication in Enterococcus faecalis protoplasts. The replication inhibitor novobiocin inhibited not only DNA replication but also cell enlargement (plasma membrane biosynthesis) and vacuole formation during the enlargement of the E. faecalis protoplasts. After novobiocin treatment prior to vacuole formation, the cell size of E. faecalis protoplasts was limited to 6 μm in diameter and the cells lacked vacuoles. When novobiocin was added after vacuole formation, E. faecalis protoplasts grew with vacuole enlargement; after novobiocin removal, protoplasts were enlarged again. Although cell size distribution of the protoplasts was similar following the 24 h and 48 h novobiocin treatments, after 72 h of novobiocin treatment there was a greater number of smaller sized protoplasts, suggesting that extended novobiocin treatment may inhibit the re-enlargement of E. faecalis protoplasts after novobiocin removal. Our findings demonstrate that novobiocin can control the enlargement of E. faecalis protoplasts due to inhibition of DNA replication.

PDF | Published online: 10/08/2020 | In press

Variants of the human RAD52 gene confer defects in ionizing radiation resistance and homologous recombination repair in budding yeast

Alissa D. Clear, Glenn M. Manthey, Olivia Lewis, Isabelle Y. Lopez, Rossana Rico, Shannon Owens, M. Cristina Negritto, Elise W. Wolf, Jason Xu, Nikola Kenjić, J. Jefferson P. Perry, Aaron W. Adamson, Susan L. Neuhausen, Adam M. Bailis

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RAD52 is a structurally and functionally conserved component of the DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair apparatus from budding yeast to humans. We recently showed that expressing the human gene, HsRAD52 in rad52 mutant budding yeast cells can suppress both their ionizing radiation (IR) sensitivity and homologous recombination repair (HRR) defects. Intriguingly, we observed that HsRAD52 supports DSB repair by a mechanism of HRR that conserves genome structure and is independent of the canonical HR machinery. In this study we report that naturally occurring variants of HsRAD52, one of which suppresses the pathogenicity of BRCA2 mutations, were unable to suppress the IR sensitivity and HRR defects of rad52 mutant yeast cells, but fully suppressed a defect in DSB repair by single-strand annealing (SSA). This failure to suppress both IR sensitivity and the HRR defect correlated with an inability of HsRAD52 protein to associate with and drive an interaction between genomic sequences during DSB repair by HRR. These results suggest that HsRAD52 supports multiple, distinct DSB repair apparatuses in budding yeast cells and help further define its mechanism of action in HRR. They also imply that disruption of HsRAD52-dependent HRR in BRCA2-defective human cells may contribute to protection against tumorigenesis and provide a target for killing BRCA2-defective cancers.

PDF | Supplemental Information | Published online: 20/07/2020 | In press

Plant and fungal products that extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans

Jan Martel, Cheng-Yeu Wu, Hsin-Hsin Peng, Yun-Fei Ko, Hung-Chi Yang, John D. Young and David M. Ojcius

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The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model to study aging due to its short lifespan, ease of manipulation, and available genetic tools. Several molecules and extracts derived from plants and fungi extend the lifespan of C. elegans by modulating aging-related pathways that are conserved in more complex organisms. Modulation of aging pathways leads to activation of autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis and expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes in a manner similar to caloric restriction. Low and moderate concentrations of plant and fungal molecules usually extend lifespan, while high concentrations are detrimental, consistent with a lifespan-modulating mechanism involving hormesis. We review here molecules and extracts derived from plants and fungi that extend the lifespan of C. elegans, and explore the possibility that these natural substances may produce health benefits in humans.

PDF | Published online: 09/07/2020 | In press

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