Back to article: Gut microbial metabolites in depression: understanding the biochemical mechanisms

TABLE 1. Studies investigating the effect of a lack of microbiota on neurotransmitter systems.

5-HIAA: 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid; 5-HT: 5-Hydroxytryptamine; BDNF: Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor; GABA: Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid; GF: Germ-Free; HPA: Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal; PSD-95: Postsynaptic Density Protein 95; SLC6A4: Serotonin Transporter; SPF: Specific Pathogen Free; TPH-1: Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1.

2. Heijtz RD, Wang S, Anuar F, Qian Y, Bjorkholm B, Samuelsson A, Hibberd ML, Forssberg H, and Pettersson S (2011). Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108(7): 3047–3052. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1010529108
32. Wikoff WR, Anfora AT, Liu J, Schultz PG, Lesley SA, Peters EC, and Siuzdak G (2009). Metabolomics analysis reveals large effects of gut microflora on mammalian blood metabolites. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106(10): 3698–3703. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0812874106
45. Asano Y, Hiramoto T, Nishino R, Aiba Y, Kimura T, Yoshihara K, Koga Y, and Sudo N (2012). Critical role of gut microbiota in the production of biologically active, free catecholamines in the gut lumen of mice. Am J Physiol – Gastrointest Liver Physiol 303: G1288-95. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00341.2012
46. Matsumoto M, Kibe R, Ooga T, Aiba Y, Sawaki E, Koga Y, and Benno Y (2013). Cerebral low-molecular metabolites influenced by intestinal microbiota: a pilot study. Front Syst Neurosci 7: 9. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2013.00009
48. Yano JM, Yu K, Donaldson GP, Shastri GG, Ann P, Ma L, Nagler CR, Ismagilov RF, Mazmanian SK, and Hsiao EY (2015). Indigenous bacteria from the gut microbiota regulate host serotonin biosynthesis. Cell 161(2): 264–276. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.02.047
49. Clarke G, Grenham S, Scully P, Fitzgerald P, Moloney RD, Shanahan F, Dinan TG, and Cryan JF (2013). The microbiome-gut-brain axis during early life regulates the hippocampal serotonergic system in a sex-dependent manner. Mol Psychiatry 18(6): 666–673. doi: 10.1038/mp.2012.77
52. Velagapudi VR, Hezaveh R, Reigstad CS, Gopalacharyulu P, Yetukuri L, Islam S, Felin J, Perkins R, Borén J, Orešič M, and Bäckhed F (2010). The gut microbiota modulates host energy and lipid metabolism in mice. J Lipid Res 51(5): 1101–1112. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M002774
53. Matsumoto M, Kibe R, Ooga T, Aiba Y, Kurihara S, Sawaki E, Koga Y, and Benno Y (2012). Impact of intestinal microbiota on intestinal luminal metabolome. Sci Rep 2: 233. doi: 10.1038/srep00233

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