Back to article: Gut microbial metabolites in depression: understanding the biochemical mechanisms

TABLE 2. Studies investigating the effects of treatment with microbial cultures on neurotransmission and behavior.

5-HIAA: 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid; cfu: Colony-Forming Unit; DOPAC: 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid; FST: Forced Swim Test; EPM: Elevated Plus Maze; GABA: Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid; IFN-γ: Interferon Gamma; IL-6: Interleukin-6; OFT; Open Field Test; SIH: Stress-Induced Hyperthermia; TNF-α: Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha.

50. Janik R, Thomason LAM, Stanisz AM, Forsythe P, Bienenstock J, and Stanisz GJ (2016). Magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals oral Lactobacillus promotion of increases in brain GABA, N-acetyl aspartate and glutamate. Neuroimage 125: 988–995. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.11.018
51. Ko CY, Lin HTV, and Tsai GJ (2013). Gamma-aminobutyric acid production in black soybean milk by Lactobacillus brevis FPA 3709 and the antidepressant effect of the fermented product on a forced swimming rat model. Process Biochem 48(4): 559–568. doi: 10.1016/j.procbio.2013.02.021
55. Bravo JA, Forsythe P, Chew M V., Escaravage E, Savignac HM, Dinan TG, Bienenstock J, and Cryan JF (2011). Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain regulates emotional behavior and central GABA receptor expression in a mouse via the vagus nerve. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108(38): 16050–16055. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1102999108
58. Desbonnet L, Garrett L, Clarke G, Bienenstock J, and Dinan TG (2008). The probiotic Bifidobacteria infantis: An assessment of potential antidepressant properties in the rat. J Psychiatr Res 43(2): 164–174. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.03.009

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