Back to article: Occurrence and potential mechanism of holin-mediated non-lytic protein translocation in bacteria

FIGURE 2: Large clostridial toxins (LCTs) are genetically associated with holin/endolysin systems and are unlikely to be compatible with Sec transport. (A) Genetic environment of the genes encoding the so far known LCTs (blue). Note the presence of genes encoding a sigma-70 family sigma factor (green) and a holin (ocher) in direct neighborhood of all toxin genes. Note also that endolysin genes, or in one case a fragment of an endolysin gene, are present at all toxin loci (red). (B) Detection of a hydrophobic region in the central part of all LCTs, which has sufficient length for a trans-membrane helix and therefore would be incompatible with Sec transport. Prediction of trans-membrane helices by TMHMM 2.0 [46], using the sequences of the indicated regions only. See text for more details.

  • [46] Krogh A, Larsson B, Heijne G von, and Sonnhammer EL (2001). Predicting transmembrane protein topology with a hidden Markov model: application to complete genomes. J Mol Biol 305(3): 567–580. 10.1006/jmbi.2000.4315
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