Back to article: The metabolites of lactic acid bacteria: classification, biosynthesis and modulation of gut microbiota

FIGURE 3: The regulatory mechanism of the gut microbiota by LAB. LAB inhibit invasion and colonization of pathogens through occupying adhesion sites and producing metabolites like organic acid, bacteriocin, and EPS. LAB also activate the host innate immune system and promote the secretion of cytokines and IgA, which strengthens the integrity of intestinal mucosa and protects the intestine against pathogens.

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