Back to article: Biofilm tolerance, resistance and infections increasing threat of public health

FIGURE 2: The mechanisms of antimicrobial tolerance of a biofilm. Modified from Ciofu [8]. This diagram shows three known mechanisms of antimicrobial drug tolerance: metabolic heterogeneity, impaired permeability, and adaptive responses to stress and antibiotics.

8. Ciofu O, Moser C, Jensen PO, Høiby N (2022). Tolerance and resistance of microbial biofilms. Nat Rev Microbiol 20(10):621-635. 10.1038/s41579-022-00682-4

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