Back to article: Breaking the bad: Bacillus blocks fungal virulence factors

FIGURE 2: Model summarizing the inhibitory impact of B. safensis on virulence factor production by C. neoformans and C. albicans. (A) B. safensis inhibits melanin formation, capsule production, and biofilm formation by C. neoformans. During dual-species interaction with C. albicans, bacteria inhibit filament formation and biofilm production. Cn, C. neoformans; Ca, C. albicans. (B) Based on our results, we propose that destabilization of the fungal cell wall via bacterial chitinase(s) is an important factor contributing to the observed antifungal activities. B. safensis either produces cell surface-associated chitinase(s) (I), or, chitinase and other activities from the bacteria are only produced upon contact and are poorly diffusible (II).