FIGURE 1: Structural representation of the ATP synthase.

A composite representation of the ATP synthase is shown on the right with the F1, subunits of the stator, and the c10-ring shown. The structure of the F1 and c10-ring were derived from the x-ray crystal structures (2HDL and 3U2F) while the structures of the stator (peripheral stalk) were derived from the x-ray crystal structures of the bovine components (2WSS and 2CLY). Note, that a number of subunits have not been represented in the structure, most notably, subunit-a, which forms the proton half-channels.