FIGURE 1: Scheme of metabolic pathways allowing pyruvate utilization.

The three pathways which originate from pyruvate after (i) decarboxylation to acetaldehyde, (ii) carboxylation to oxaloacetate and (iii) oxidative decarboxylation to acetyl-CoA are schematically shown.

Acs, acetyl-CoA synthase;

Adh, alcohol dehydrogenase;

Ald, aldehyde dehydrogenase;

MPC, mitochondrial pyruvate carrier;

Pdc, pyruvate decarboxylase;

PDH, pyruvate dehydrogenase;

Pyc, pyruvate carboxylase.

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