FIGURE 1: ARBs prevent Cu and Cp-induced killing of yeast cells.

Yeast cells were incubated with 2 mM Cu for 4 h (a, d) or 250 µM Cp for 16 h (b, e) in presence of vehicle control (V.c, 2.5% DMSO) or 100 µM Candesartan (1), Candesartan Cilexetil (2), Eprosartan (3), Irbesartan (4), Losartan (5), Olmesartan (6), Olmesartan Medoxomil (7), Telmisartan (8), Trityl Candesartan Cilexetil (9) or Valsartan (10).

(c) Chemical structure of the prototype Losartan, of which Candesartan Cilexetil and Olmesartan Medoxomil are derived. The benzimidazole group in Candesartan Cilexetil and the imidazole ring in Losartan and Olmesartan Medoxomil are circled. Taken and adapted from [44].

Yeast survival in presence of different doses of Candesartan Cilexetil or Losartan upon treatment with 2 mM Cu (d) or 250 µM Cp (e). Survival was calculated by determining CFU/ml as compared to untreated control cells (no Cu or Cp). Experiment performed in quadruplicate, with at least two biological repeats. (*P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; ANOVA test using Tukey correction).

44. Michel MC, Foster C, Brunner HR, Liu L (2013). A systematic comparison of the properties of clinically used angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists. Pharmacological reviews 65(2): 809-848.

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