FIGURE 3: The coordinated metabolite flow within glycolytic and non-glycolytic pathways of carbohydrate metabolism defines yeast longevity by modulating vital cellular processes.

A model for how metabolic flux within the network integrating glycolytic and non-glycolytic pathways of carbohydrate metabolism in chronologically ʺyoungʺ, proliferating yeast cells define the development and maintenance of a pro- or anti-aging cellular pattern throughout lifespan, before an arrest of cell growth and division and after such arrest. Activation arrows and inhibition bars denote pro-aging processes (displayed in blue color) or anti-aging processes (displayed in red color). Please see text for additional details.

Ac-CoA, acetyl-CoA; DHAP, dihydroxyacetone phosphate; EtOH, ethanol; GA-3-P, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate; GLR, glutathione reductase; PCD, programmed cell death; TCA, tricarboxylic acid; TORC1, target of rapamycin complex 1; TRR, thioredoxin reductase.