FIGURE 4: Two distinct pathways for the action of ART. One action (the heme-mediated pathway) is non-specific and the other (mitochondrial action) is specific. In most types of cells such as mammalian cells, only the non-specific action exists. In other types of cells such as malarial parasites and Baker’s yeast cells, the anti-mitochondrial action exists and their mitochondria are sensitive to the action of ARTs. When both of these two actions exist, suppressing the heme-pathway will potentiate the mitochondrial action. This is because ART is consumable and by reducing ART degradation through heme’s action, more ART may be available to the action of mitochondria.