FIGURE 4: Kti11•Kti13 dimer (alias Dph3•Dph8), dual modification regulator. The dimer is located upstream of two radical SAM (RS) enzyme complexes (Dph1•Dph2; Elongator: Elp1•Elp6). Its dual regulator roles ensure proper synthesis of diphthamide on EF2 and modification of tRNA anticodon wobble uridine (U34) bases in order to support accurate mRNA translation and de novo protein synthesis [27][50].

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